1480 – 1500
The background color of dark blue with cobalt blue pigment in compositions implimented “Rumi” as the dominate pattern and was chiefly found during this early period begining in the 1480’s. (Table 2.3) 1480 ‘den duraklasa and stopped at some time between 1560 to 1570. It later started up again and lasted until the end of 1620. The Rumi motif was used by Ottoman craftsmen and artisans in all ways within the entire decorative art field and trades. Book illustrations, fabrics, wood carvings, carpets, oriental rugs, gold, silver, copper, bronze metals were used for any and every purpose imaginable. There was a small renaissance happening in this area. The actual origins were Anatolian. Before the start of Turkish migration to Central Asia and later to Anatolia, the Aremenians and Greeks were migrating from Anatolia to Iran. At that time, this very wide open region was called Diyar-i-Rum” and named “Rumi” by everyone passing through and the name continues from this origin. The exact meaning of the word “Anatolia”. This collection of designs were created by artists from Greece and Armenia. Seljuk adopted the motifs and then applied to everything being made practically in the Mıddle East, (picture 58). It was a flourishing time for everyone and extraordinary progress was made during this period of the Ottoman Empire. For these reasons the production period of Iznik Ceramics have endured for centuries in popularity and bringing riches, success and jobs to the area. This would be any artisan’s dream to be working in this dynamic area.
To continue, there are two types of “Rumi” decorations. The first type, the Rumi motifs dominate the entire object no matter what the object is. In the second type of application of “Rumi motifs”, they are different in composition and are used in a complimentary pattern. ( Pictures 59, 60, 61, 62).
More concerns over other aspects of motifs used and why they were implimented are answered by knowing that small vertical and horizontal views of fig leaves with shadows, provided a curved design to borders on round plates. The diameter of plates was generally 40 cm’s and concentric circles were drawn to achieve the illusion of height as in examples of Chinese motifs decorating the exterior of plates. ( Picture 60a). Therefore, plates on the exterior would be decorated from outside rim to bottom casting mold rim. Chrysanthemums, lotus, peony, rose and patterns of Ling Zhi mushrooms were drawn without knowing what that flower was called from Chinese copies. So here marks for the first time the use of Chinese separator ( linkage) motifs onto Iznik ceramics. ( Pictures 62, 63).
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM
This is one of the earliest examples of a drinking mug. The body of mug contains “Rumi” Rumiler motifs 12th century. The area of origin and applied decoration is Middle Eastern and attributed to Apreham from Kutaisi more than 400 years ago. A careful and patient research is needed to create a more refined and historical basis of its exact origins. However, after searching over 12,000 works of art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NYC, these are the historical results thus far achieved for this object.
Rumi motif began in the 1480’s and was applied in compostions on Iznik tiles and ceramics until 1620.
Hilly(tepelik) Rumi Motifs
by Mrs. Müzehher Özdalı Bice
“Kanatlı rumi, sade rumi and tepelik rumi” in only one “şemse”
“ Hilly” (Tepelik) motif influence under the Chinese “Ru Yi” patterns. They were used at peaks and middle points of the compositions which provide the linkage between patterns of Rumiler “common bond”and used as a motif as well.
MUSEE NATİONAL Dİ CERAMİQUE SEVRES
Ø : 40 cm. Date: 1480
Rumi motif and fig leaves
MUSEE DU LOUVRE Paris
Ø : 40 cm. Date 1480
View of a religious message in Kufic characters with Rumi patterns and fig leaves. The painting as seen here is extremely delicate, tedious and painstakingly difficult, especially in achieving such high quality.
Chrysanthemums in the side walls
GEMEENTE MUSEUM DEN HAAG
Ø : 40 cm. date: 1480
Rumi motif and fig leaves
Exact copy made by ceramic artist Ismail Yigit.
ÇİNİLİ KÖŞK İstanbul
Ø: 40cm. date:1480
Fig leaves and separators between rumi motifs.
The Yuan Dynasty 1279 – 1368
Two line Ru-Yi motif framed separators.