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4. Stage

26 Mayıs 2012





1520 – 1530


Innovation seeking is intensity. Iznik pottery of this period, the contribution of the color palette, increadible turquoise (picture 94,95,96). This color brings an extraordinary vitality to the objects.

Şah Kulu accepted to the palace during this period. Saz leaves begin to appear in the compositions at 1520. However, to reach a real event at 1540s. Details will be examine in Şah Kulu part. 

4. stage Baba Nakkaş the technique continues, craftmen and artists reached the high point in the quality of the composition. (picture 87, 96) The inner surfaces of objects for the first time, “Wheel of fortune” (çarkıfelek) motifs began to applied. (picture 88)

And the final composition of Baba Nakkaş period is the “Golden Horn Job – Golden Horn – Tuğrakeş – Helix Spiral” began to take a little adventure. 

The effect has increased so much that the Chinese porcelains used in the kitchen of the palace, in both form and composition, has copied exactly the same. (picture 89,90,91,92,93,94,95) To almost 1600 this copy from time to time, but especially the quality of the brush using the technique has continued to fall. Bunch of Grapes are most coppied compositions. 



Wheel of fortune compositions began to be applied for the first time in Baba Nakkaş period. However, very few trials, and therefore those who transferred to the present day. Intensive application of this composition is in Kara Memi period. Researchers confused this motif as the symbols of weathercock on Map, Oceanography and Meteorology. There are many differences between look and see. For this reason (Period 3 Karamemi) section under the heading of Weathercock is discussed in very detailed comparison with the wheel of fortune. (picture 88,410,411,412,413)


picture 87


h=19.5 cm    Ø= 38 cm.
date 1530

Baba Nakkaş style basin . Bottom border, typical separators.

picture 88

Motifs in the center circle are “rumi”. The motif the inner surface from the center outward is “Wheel of fortune”.




picture 89


The Yongle period  (1402-1424) 

Differentiated by the types of flowers images, as can be determined according to the leaf structure. For example, the central flower, leaf structure can be interpreted as it is chrysanthemum. However, as the main figure is not a chrysanthemum.  Rose leaf structure is very similar to chrysanthemums. Therefore, this is a  chrysanthemum, it is rose. Hours 8 and 11 peony, hour 5 lotus . Difficult to make a definitive comment about the flower on the direction of 2 o’clock.


picture 90


date (1525)

Three O’clock rose; Six O’clock, peony;  Nine O’clock, lotus; Twelve O’clock, chrysanthemum; and center chrysanthemum


picture 91


 date 1525 – 35

Rose, lotus, peony

Artists in Iznik during Baba Nakkaş period, hot have detailed information about the structures of flowers they coppied, they mix up leaf patterns from time to time. For example, drew both peony and rose leaves on rose. Fort his reason, this object border (picture 53.54) is similar to the dragon motif. The difference here, it makes the border due to the copy of the artist, not knowing what he draw.


picture 92

  Ø: 36.2 cm. date 1525

Decorations are used during the production form of the first Tazza in Baba Nakkaş period, was a Chinese copy.



picture 93

    The Yongle period  (1402-1424)

The original Chinese rock and wave motifs. The grapes are black. Middle border has lotus, rose, peony, chrysanthemum, and pomegranate flower are together.


     picturen 94


  Ø : 37.4 cm.    date 1525-1530

Border is dragon spiral, grapes are white.


picture 95


 Ø=41 cm  date 1530

External border, drangon impact, but a mutated trial. Middle border is Ling Zhi mushroom similar to Ru-Yi pattern.


picture 96


 date 1525-35 

Pomegranat flower, stylized dragon and fig leaves

Object may be a pitcher is probably broken neck.




And the final composition of Baba Nakkaş period is the “Golden Horn Job – Golden Horn – Tuğrakeş – Helix Spiral” began to take a little adventure. 

 Originated in an application that has a unique composition of Baba Nakkaş in 1525s, slowly reveals itself. Combination of the Golden Horn called the General, Baba Nakkaş’s greatest gift to Iznik ceramics history. Craftsman who created this composition is not known.

However, the Golden Horn, known as the Golden Horn, is a very important geological construction look like horn at the beginning of bosphorus. This is a natural recess in the sea area where 500 years of a residential and valuable area of Istanbul, describe as gold. Golden Horn is the expression, these type of Iznik production, as though they were produced in Golden Horn. However some examples of Iznik ceramics found in the area, but it doesnot prove that they are produced in Golden Horn. Probably these are belong to an Iznik ceramics dealers shop. In our opinion these ceramics under the soil were a result of a great Istanbul earthquake and major fire disasters. In a different thesis, thought as the golden horn Golden Horn, the curves of helical pattern may be due to its similarity to the coach horn.

Also another description of this pattern is, “Tugrakes” which is the ground pattern of Tugra of Suleiman the Magnificent. In our opinion, in technical the helix spiral pattern is more appropriate description for it, also we are agreeable called “Tugrakes” as a historical symbol. The Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum, with its tiny branches of the spiral structure, and this is the first samples spiraling patterns is very close to applications in Iznik ceramics. Applications on tugra is so much admired, after Suleiman the Magnificent, sultans used it only small pattern decorations changes on the main tugra. (picture 97)

Helix spiral motifs first seen in Samarkand ceramics in 10th century.( picture 97a), also this spiral motif seen on a pencil box from the Ming period in 15th century (picture 98), thinkable that this tuğrakes motif also originated in China. The composition of this motif is very similar on the body of a ceramic urn in Venice dated to 1500.( picture 98a) This motif is a copy? Could be, or not.

Detail in the decoration of Iznik; motif from the fact that more and more complicated. 2 branches which are separated out in a single thin branch, and gradually decreased in diameter toward the center and getting small circles, even in small flowers -which does not- and private figures decoration, a combination of the helical curves. From 1530-40 was the most intense applicaiton period, but decrease rapidly after 1540s also made ​​from time to time trials and continued until 1550. (picture 99, 100, 101, 102)

An important visual addition to the motif in 1535. Since only two out of the branch points of the spiral separation, has a small rumi patterns.  In this way, motif can be follow by eyes easily and in the separation points, visual troubles cannot be seen. (picture 103, 104)

History, the border between the two periods due to the start of Baba Nakkaş even though the rumi medallion applications date back almost the entire period of  Şah Kulu.

Pattern and decoration that is not being identified, even very small errors give the feeling of the flaw, caused by the loss of demand and the application has been abandoned as soon as possible. This motif, however, was abandoned in İznik ceramics, the life of the Sultan’s tugras continued for centuries.

A plate in Antaki collection dating from 1600, and another plate dated in 1550-60 in the collection of the British Museum, not a real tuğrakeş. (picture 105)




picture 97


Tugra of Suleiman the Magnificent

date 1555


picture 97a

The Semerkant
10 th Century


picture 98

The Ming Dynasty 15 th Century

picture 98a


The Venezia ceramic urn.

Circa 1500s


picture 99

                   THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM              

     Ewer with a lid     

Circa 1530–35

Ewer  :      h.  22.4 cm      W. 18.9 cm     Max. Ø.  14 cm

Lid :      h.  4 cm       Ø. 8.7 cm

picture 100

Lid of vase or vessel


picture 101



Ø : 28 cm.   date 1545

True date: 1530


  picture 102


 16thC. (early)
h: 7.5 cm. Ø: 37cm.(rim) Ø :18.6 cm. (foot)

Chinese influence in the side walls of the plate.

China-Tugrakes together, true date 1535


picture 103


            h: 43 cm.  date 1530-35

“Rumi” motifs covering separation of the branches is applied for the first time.


picture 104

Rumi pattern cover image distortion.


   picture 105


circa 1550-60

Composition and the motif is not the original tuğrakeş. Spiral pattern is not applied on the structure. Interestingly, in a stylized dragon rambled around rumi medallion motifs.