Başlangıç » General » 5. Stage

5. Stage

26 Mayıs 2012

 

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5. STAGE

1530 – 1535

Baba Nakkaş effects only continue with tugrakes. Since 1480, dark-blue ground and white pattern technique is very difficult and extremely meticulous study of applications abandoned in 1515s, white ground, blue patterns applications has same care as well, and craftmen get very tired and bored study on it. Gradually decrease the intensity pattern in applications. Attention almost never did, at the end of 1530s, the palace study on mosques, madrasas, mausoleums, and the restoration work has increased the tiles production. Many of the craftsmen and workshops began to be transferred to tiles from ceramics. Standardization of production technique of tile and painting, has a negative effect on ceramic work. A group of master craftsmen and workshops between 1530 – 1535 “easy trend” works – a group of academics that have been accepted as the current style of the masters – also after Şah Kulu period, such as an innovative production of ceramics remained until 1545. A group of craftmen and workshops faithful their past continued to their productions and study on tugrakes sensitivly, while a third group connected with Şah Kulu create a unique style called saz leaves. This period in the history of Iznik ceramics, would make more sense to detect a transition period.

“Easy trend” became very very easy and craftmen prefered to draw flower bud even then flowers, these are simple motifs like a table, cabinet, such as vases. The origin of this style is also examples of Yuan period in China. (picture 106)

 

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However, this period has its own unique features. For example:

There are two main colors used in other than white, tones of blue and turquoise.

Pattern applied simple draws.

Painting and brush techniques, is very weak.

Vertical and horizantal view totally lost.

For the first time in buds, spring flowers, tulips, saz leaves and carnations are drawn. However, in practice and attention to detail no. Central composition dispersed.

Vases, flowerpots and bouquets of flowers as a pattern are new combinations.

They laid on the desks, cabinets, consoles located in the composition.

Blue ground and small white patterns applied on the edge of the main center composition, this style is completely opposite of Baba Nakkaş, as if they want to remind you that the time is stil Babs Nakkaş.

Dragons  take their places between spaces.

Simple bird view of flowers drawn on borders.

There should be an equal number incorrectly applied to the symmetric and continuous patterns. (Example: 4 pieces of tulip bouquets can be seen between 5 pieces of tulip bouquets)

Continuations of motifs drawn in “Ulama tiles” style. (picture 108) as a result of coplete merging the tiles side by side is called “Ulama tile” style. (picture 109)

Bird view flowers, rumi motifs, and dragons drawn and  decorated in an oval form like large curved edges and called this new pattern “Şemse” in Iznik literature.

Broken branches drawn the first time.

The first signs of Karamemi compositions can be seen. (picture 107,108,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120)

Large border plates like Italian “tondino” form plates, and cup plates used in China since the beginning of 1400, which begins to be produced since the beginning of 1530. (picture 108,118.120)

This unbalanced production of poor quality and sloppy,  abandoned as soon as possible to not cause demand.

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 Picture 106

The Yuan Dynasty  1279 – 1368

 Easy trend’s Chinese version. 200 years before Iznik. Looklike Kara Memi’s style. All the characteristic features of Chrysanthemums are on the middle border. General elliptical structure of the flower – a very large number of small elliptical petals – are visible in the middle of the flower seeds and pollen – and a broad view of the saw blade leaves a very clear structure

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   Picture 107 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

  h: 5.5 cm      Ø : 34.8 cm (rim)      Ø : 18.2 cm   date  1530-40 

Saz leaves, spring flowers, tulip and carnation buds are Under the protection  of dragons. Middle border is also in the control of dragons too. Broken branches are used for the first time. On the central panel Baba Nakkaş not forgotten. The white on blue ground pattern is inherited form master. Bilateral drakes, even pomegranate flowers under the protection of dual dragons, escaped and came to from oil lamps in the mosque in 1510. Even the veins in leaves not forgotten, an example of a faithful.

 General style; Chinese imitation “easy trend”

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 Picture 108

     THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

        Ø  : 26 cm   circa   1530-40 

Application on Tondino  plate form, has been generally in the style of the continuity of the pattern. Tiles “ulama” in the name of this kind, it does not fit the patterns on tiles. However, continuity is provided when tiles put side by side. Continuation of the pattern on the object is similar in “ulama” technique.

 Picture 109

THE GULBENKIAN MUSEUM

42.5 x 23.5 cm.

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 Picture 110

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

h: 17 cm.    Ø  : 9 cm.     Ø   : 8.9 cm.(foot)  date 1530

Standardization and continuity in the pattern continued. Turquoise, also began to be used in all appropriate pattern and motif. Classical choice of easy trend flower buds dominated in the composition. One group of investigator called maggots called, baby dragons continue to fill the blanks. Border on the top edge of the neck “chain pattern”, arrow heads are on the lower neck. Both this and cylindrical necks, stocky and flattened mug in picture 127 are the first examples of produced in China before the beginning of 15th century and the Iranian copying them (picture. 110a, 110b), and ultimately came to Iznik.

 Picture 110a

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM

The Ming dynasty (1368–1644)

Date: early 15th century

 h:14 cm     Ø: 12.8 cm 

Flattened and stocky with a cylindrical neck that affects the period of the Baba Nakkaş.

 Picture 110b

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM

  The Iranian  

Date: late 15th century

 h: 14 cm   Ø:  13.2 cm

At the end of the 15th century continue to structure the same form. Difference between Chinese mug and Iranian flat and cylindrical neck mug is the cylindrical base. Iznik masters coppied the Iranian samples in same.

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 Picture 111 

  PRIVATE COLLECTION

date 1540

Imitation of China “easy trend” continues, turquoise is essential.

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 Picture 112

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

h: 2.5 cm. Ø: 27 cm.    Ø: 17.8 cm(foot)  circa 1535-45

“Easy trend” most commonly used, as well as easy application and no problems as well as filling the blanks with “Şemse motifs” and “bird view/Penç” flowers.

İsmail yiğit3

picture 112a

MUSEE NATIONAL DE LA RENESSANS

1540-45

Dragons in “şemse motifs” and tulips. By İsmail Yiğit

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 Picture 113

THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM

circa  1530-35

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 Picture 114

  PRIVATE COLLECTION

h = 37.8 cm.    date 1530

Turquoise vertical and horizontal view tulips, carnations and others (Bunch is probably hyacinth). A spiral-look like tugrakes on neck. Interesting that the vase of flowers in the middle band are reverse. Base border is zigzag.

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 Picture 115

THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM

h : 39 cm.    Ø : 15.5 cm.   date    1540

Chintamani and tulip combination. Chain pattern in the mouth, standing zigzag border.

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 Picture 116

THE FREER GALLERY OF ART

h= 6.8 cm.    Ø = 37.6 cm.   date 1525

Easy trend dominate all the elements. Cabinets, with flowers in vases, buds, bird view flowers, memorial of Baba Nakkaş application around the central panel, Chinese style floral borders, external borders and turquoise blue ground worked.

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 Picture 117

THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM

h: 41.5 cm.  Ø: 16.5 cm.   date 1535 

Şemse” motif and first time spring branches..

“Easy trend” good application.

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 Picture 118

 

THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM

circa 1535-45 

A typical application on Tondino in 5th phase.

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 Picture 119

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

 h: 7.5 cm.      Ø: 37 cm. (rim)        Ø: 18.5 cm. (foot)

16thC.

Pomegranates, artichokes and poppy cocoons first attempts, the periods 3 important flower tulips, carnations, and spring flowers is support the composition. Thimbles on flower stems and half flowers hidden under leaves. Dominated by carnation on the middle border. The tulip flower and bird view flowers on external borders, long-lasting adventures started. True date 1540.

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 Picture 120

THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM

circa 1535-40

A very interesting, the wheat (But we are not sure about the ears of wheat) used in Kara Memi. Trying Hyacinths and branches breaking. An innovation that borders on the remarkable combination of tulips and hyacinths.

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