GENERAL PROPERTIES OF THE PERIOD
After describing “Secrets Under Underglaze” of the period, we must now examine its general developement next.
Baba Nakkaş became master craftman by Fatih Sultan Mehmet after the conquest of İstanbul. He was a very important artist. In the same historical process, Iznik ceramic masters, on the other hand the quality of the dough, turning to quartz upgrading, on the other hand have developed techniques for glazing and firing. In the palace, Baba Nakkaş and his students, who influenced Chinese ceramic patterns, motifs and compositions, and began to copy them exactly and drew their creations rumi and hatayi patterns with them and created extraordinary objects.
This application and production, the influence of certain periods in the historical perspective of Chinese ceramics continued until the late 16th century.
These Periods are:
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
The Ming Dynasty
The Yongle periodu 1402-1424
The Xuande periodu 1426-1435
The Chenghua periodu 1465-1487
The Jiajing periodu 1522-1566
However, craftmen in the palace used and coppied some of the motifs from Chinese ceramics and without knowing what the motifs they are, and continued until the last period of Iznik ceramics. For example, ling zhi mushroom called flower motif or lotus flower motif, called cloud to dragon motif, dragon skin called Chinese rock or wall, separators have an important role and a part of Chinese home life called atlar. Unfortunately, many scientists and researcher interpreted these patterns in the same mistake. However, by this copy, Iznik ceramics have some patterns such as rumi, (picture 59,60,61,62) vertical / horizontal view, (picture 70,74,79,80,) bird view (picture 108,112,139), Wheel of fortune (picture 88) separator, (picture 62 63 70).
Color characteristic of the period, two-color application technique. Usually preferred dark blue or cobalt blue tones painting on white lining. Blue and white Chinese ceramics effect it very much. Baba Nakkaş and his students produced blue background and white motif like Chinese ceramics and towards the end of the period they used successfully sage tea green – white and brown – white on some objects. Seeking new colors, they used different tones of blue and green colors and found turquoise color as a third color and it took its place in the palette and on the objects.
By the way we have to explaine a traditional msitake. Because of an old traditional wrong speech, academics and researchers examining Ottoman documents and said that “there must be a lot of green-white Iznik pottery was produced.” Their hope is in an excavation site they will find a lot of green- white ceramics. Yet even today, especially in the Aegean and Mediterranean villages, and even many in our village, blue is still called green. It comes like it from generation to generation from the Ottomans. For this reason, 400-500 years ago, when the documents written by official, the offical saw blue – white Iznik ceramic, but he knew blue as a green, he wrote green – white to the documents.
Before finding and using black, thin contours drew, painted and determined by the colors bright and dark tones. Study on patterns and motifs are very meticulous and detailed. Different patterns and motifs in different Chinese ceramics used in a combination in Iznik copies, and combinations of these applications, a lot of copies, has become much better quality than the original.
A researcher and innovator artist Baba Nakkaş has made many innovations while copying. Produced different type of kitchen equipments. Plates, mugs, cups, pitchers, vases, jars, candlesticks, mosque lamps, inkwells, brought a wealth of objects.
But the palace’s increased demand and pressure, forced the Iznik master to produced tiles. Besides economic benefits, painting and production standard technique of tile and has triggered this transition. It stoke the variety of ceramic objects and the production is a lot of plate, a few mugs, cups and jugs / bottles were limited.
Forms an important object of the period of historical findings that may help in the technical measurement scales are.
As can be seen produced large-scale plates to 30 cm from 46 cm during Baba Nakkaş period. This is entirely the result of Chinese influence. Plate edges often wavy edges (leaf edges or parentheses). Proportionally lower than the production of flat-sided plates. The width of the borders are from 3.3 cm to 6 cm. The height of the plate goes up to 8.2 cm. These numbers have no any proportional relationship between plate diameters.
A Kitchen equipment model from Italy. Not favoured by the Ottoman cuisine is not useful for. At the end of the period (1530-35) produced as a standard.
There are very few examples from this period.
A form created by Baba Nakkaş. During the period, particularly attracted the attention of the palace. Produces a wide diameter range. However, the foot portion (base) is cylindrical and has collapse problems. For this reason, the period of Şah Kulu it became wide and shallow foot.
This difference provides a great convenience to make the historical determination.
Baba Nakkaş studied very hard to increase the kitchen equipment but not was successfully on jugs. Only two examples came to the present period. These are being exhibited at the Tiled Pavilion. An important study with a height 22 cm (picture. 127) and a sample produced in the beginning of simple trend height 17 cm. (picture 110). Flattened and stocky structure of both the 15th Century influenced from China and Iran, (picture 110a, 110b), but eventually developed aesthetically. View cylindrical neck starting in Şah Kulu period, especially after 1560’s it became thin waist form look more aesthetic. The body turned to pear-shaped from sphere structure.
A pincher came from 1520 to the present from Baba Nakkaş period with a broken neck (picture. 135) probably 31-32 cm in height. Simple trend started at 1530s and continued in Şah Kulu period and the height of the jugs produced during this period are between 37-42 cm
Jars produced during Baba Nakkaş period are the one of the important kitchen equipment, Probably all of them have a lid.However, many lids could not reach the present day. Mini grain reserves, the Ottoman cuisine.In the period of Baba Nakkaş 3, in the period of Kara Memi 1, total 4 were produced in different forms.
There is a standard size between 21-33 cm. Form produced in 1510s main feature is the carring rings are in the circle of main body. The whole body, a structure can be considered relatively square. Merger with the bands of the neck and base of the body, the body combination of sharply angled and complements from main circle.
In the period analyzed in terms of art, primarily by using the precise contours of a drawing technique applied a very thin brush. Paint the drawing techniques that can cause flooding, patterns painted interiors, care and attention to their work has made. The result is excellent.
The teachings of Baba Nakkaş on patterns, motifs and brush techniques continued and transferred from generation to generation by all craftmen until the close of Iznik workshops.
Examine the period in 5 parts which are visual, color, technique, and historically will be much healthier.