1510 – 1520
Baba Nakkaş probably was born in 1435s, and probably not alive in these date. His students and assistants studied with him avoid difficult techniques after his authoritarian and pressure. The first studies of this effect can be seen on ground.
Due to the ease of application, cobalt blue background, (which later turned to a white ground), navy blue was employed as it turns blue. Apprentices make the applications and techniques easier but remain faithful to their master’s compostions and augment his work by adding a diversity of patterns with new and old motifs. For examples, horizontal and vertical patterns. Hatay and/or Hita is a specific pattern known as “Chinese-Turkestan” concept with vertical and horizontal cross sectional views of flowers. ( See table 4). This influential association and evolvement is the main composition of Baba Nakkus period( Pictures 78-80) has thus assumed a major role in the overall development of these artistic themes and techniques.
Having begun at the end of the Chinese “Yuan Period” (1279-1368) of the Ming Dynasty, the period following, the “Yougle Period” ( 1402-1424), became very popular also. The main motifs of this period are as listed: Ling zhi mushroom, lotus, chrysanthemum, rose, peony and pomegranate flowers. ( See pictures 81 ,81 a, b, c, d, 82- 85). At first, it is difficult to distinguish the subtleties of each but eventually by studying the smaller details one can begin to recognize the different flowers.
In brief review, authors are pleased to offer the readers/students more generalized reference points regarding each flower and the way the artists interpreted them many centuries ago. They are as follows:
1. Lotus: Petals are jagged. Flowers are relatively conical in form. The leaves on branches are similar to fuschia flowers.
2. Peony: Petals are rounded and curved. Flower is not conical in form but circular. Leaves on branches appear to be rose like leaves but the edges of leaves are flat and not saw blade.
3. Rose: The same as peony flower form, the only difference being the leaf branches are saw blade.
4. Chrysanthemum: Elliptical petals, small-sized and quite numerous. Flower form is also completely elliptical. The leaves on stalks or branches are also saw blade.
5. Pomegranate flower: Dish leaf shape at the very bottom and are only two small round flowers, triple large in size with many petals.
However, some of the earlier crafsmen and designers copied the floral motifs as the same, but in time, one by one, the motifs were better understood and as an off example to this point, the rose became a specific rose motif, drawn as such. The rose was later abandoned because of certain conflicting religious beliefs. This also explains why the roses are just seen as copies in the 1525 era. Another motif drawn in at this time were separator motifs and banding motifs also used to fill in blank areas on objects.
THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM
Basin (leğen) Date : 1520
Main motif: Vertical view (hatayi) of peonies.
Petals of the lotus has jagged. Peonies is rounded as above. Please compare with lotus flowers which is the main motif in the figure (Picture 79).
THE BRITISH MUSEUM
h: 30 cm. Ø: 26 cm. (max) Ø: 15.5 cm. (rim) Ø: 14.4 cm. (base)
Main motifs; vertical view of pomegranate flowers and lotus flowers in both vertical and horizontal view. On the mouth dual chain pattern border. At the neck pomegranate flowers, and horizantol view of flowers. The bottom of the neck and at the base zigzag border.
THE LOS ANGELES COUNRTY MUSEUM OF ART
The Edwin Binney, 3rd, Turkish Collection
h : 24.2 cm. Ø : 11.2 cm. earl 16 Cth.
Vertical and horizontal view lotus flowers are more then pomegranate flowers. The dual 3d imagine of chain pattern under the rumi motif on the neck is interesting. Date ~ 1515-20
Lotus flower, pedalsa re jagged and flower structure is conical.
Branches leaves look like fuschia.
Rose, petals and structure of flower is round.
Branches leaves are saw blade.
Petals look like rose. Leaves of the branches are straight and curved.
Single flower on the left is rose. Leaves of branches are clearly saw blade.
Chrysanthemum flower structure is oval, petals are many and ellipse.
Leaves of branckes are saw blade same as rose.
Pomegranate flower. Petals are curved, large and 3 piece.
Dish leaves at the base of the petals have stored form two pomegranate seeds.
The Mıng Dynasty , The Yongle period
h =35.9 cm.
Three different flowers on this object can be seen. On left, Ling Zhi mushroom; middle, the rose and on right side, the lotus
The Xuande period
Ø = 28.2cm.
The Xuande period
Ø = 17.3 cm.
Lotus has a special structural shape of the leaves.
The Xuande period
Peonies and Chrysanthemums.
Peony leaves are flat, chrysanthemum leaves are large and saw blade. In the center is the origin of the saz leaves.
Ru Yi motif on body border and neck on an original Chinese ceramic.