Başlangıç » General » 2. Stage

2. Stage

26 Mayıs 2012

 

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2. STAGE

     1500 – 1510

 

During this period, decrease in rumi motif, increase on “vertical view” motif starting the last years of 15th century. (table 4) (picture 70, 71,72,73,74)

Especially mosque oil lamp important in this time and  “four new motif” and a “new detail” motif begun from Chinese motifs.

 

 

Table 4

Vertical and horizontal cross-section view

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NEW MOTİF 1

“KNOT”

The first of four new motif, a pattern of the knot. Especially the oil lamps in the mosque and rarely seen on the large-sized basins. Also known as Naga, folkloric Indian origin, the production of the early period of the Buddha, a panacea, a double cobra snake origin, is one of Buddhizm’in 8 symbol. Helix formed by two snakes turned into a stylized knot motif in Buddhizm. A symbol and a motif frequently used in Chinese porcelains in the early Ming period. (picture 77) Seljuk stonework and tiles have been widely used as a motif inherited from the Ottoman Empire. However, applied in 6-7 years only. (picture 64,65.66,67,68, 69.76 a)

The Indian “naga”

 The Buddhizm “ The stylized “

The Ottoman knot, snake eyes can be seen carefully.

NEW MOTİF 2

“ STYLIZED DRAGON”

In the second pattern; from Kara Memi until the end of the period, almost used in every object is a very important Chinese motif. However, copying from Chinese porcelains in the palace, both the artist and researchers today still do not understand what these patterns to symbolize. The desire to find an adjective or name as soon as possible for the literature, they called and stylized as a Chinese cloud, the cloud band, such as tchi cloud, the cloud originated. Not without searching deeply, incorrect name came to the present day by copying of intellectual thoughts (picture 30, 31.31a, 35,36,36a,38,40,41,43,52a,64,65,66,67,68)                         

However, this motif is stylied dragon motif in Chinese art and mythology. Interestingly, the oil lamps in the mosque and religious texts, dragon’s ability of to accompany. Began in the 1500s, a break between (1560-1580), a mosque oil lamp in The Walters Museum / Baltimore produced between 1580-85, completely eliminates the diverse interpretations of the pattern. Craftmen and the artist  drew andapplied  the motif knowing that it is dragon. (picture 33). 100 years later, a spectacular signature of this motif drawn since 1500s.

It’s a fact; Iznik ceramics loved Dragon, the dragon has adopted a new nest. (Datetable, no. 9)

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NEW MOTİF 3

“RU-Yİ”

The third pattern is Ru Yi pattern copied from China. (table 5) (picture 63, 86) The first symbol of Buddha’s main 8 philosophy. Extract: all wishes and demands hope come true. This motif is seen on the head of King’s stick in China.  In Chinese art and ceramics, this motif used as a band pattern. This motif were used in same in Rumi motif, on the bands,  and borders. (picture 67,68,74,75)

 

 

 

 

NEW MOTİF 4

“CHAIN”

 

 

The fourth major new pattern is chain to separate the different compositions on the object. Iznik ceramic art and literature of the Ottoman motif called “zencerek”. Typically, double and quartet used. Applied to almost all objects as borders. Pattern that determines the upper and lower limits of our pages are quartet “chain/zencerek” motif. (table 6) (picture 70,72,79,80)

Quartet chain/zencerek

 

 

NEW DETAIL 

“THE LEAF VEINS

New detail is: leaf’s middle vein motif. The main middle veins drawn on leaves. In this application, brush pulls from thick to thin slowly and by this leaf has a concave view. This line of veins get thin and disappear at the top of leaf. Although a detailed even missed but important for historical criterion. (picture 69) Applied as same Baba Nakkaş samples in Kara Memi period.

 

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Picture 64

 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

 

            Object types  mosque-lamp   Date    1510 (circa)

  h: 27.8 cm   Ø: 18.5 cm (max)    Ø: 17.8 cm (rim)   Ø: 10.8 cm(foot)

 

 

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Picture 65

Knot snake and dragon motif.

Picture 66

At the base combination of  “knot / chain pattern” and the bottom side wall “stylized dragon motifs”

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Picture 67

  THE BRITISH MUSEUM

Object types  mosque-lamp   Date    1510 (circa)

 h: 28.2 cm  Ø: 18 cm.  Ø: 16.6 cm. (rim)    Ø: 10.6 cm. (foot)

Religious messages are knotted together. The composition of the neck at the bottom of religious writing, pomegranate flowers began to bear fruit. The main motif on the body, China “Ru – Yi” pattern. Chain link handles guarded by dragons. (picture 68) The same flowers, there are also the lower part of the body. (picture 69) first motif on foot border is “rumi” motif, second, the “chain/zencerek” pattern.

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Picture 68

Picture 69

A large knot motif at the base surrounded by separators. Main veins drawn on leaves on side walls close to the base lines.

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Picture 70 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

Object types  mosque-lamp   Date   1510 (circa)

h: 21.9 cm    Ø:15.8 cm (max)     Ø: 8.6 c m (foot)     Ø:16.8 cm(rim)

Vertical view patterns dominated on the object. The top, dual chain pattern border in the mouth. Under it, the kufi character messege. Quartet chain located on the waist border. Separators are on the top of the body border. The main composition of the main body of classical Baba Nakkaş style, then dual chain pattern border and a final with Ru Yi motif.

 

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Picture 71

Kufic, chain pattern, separator, vertical view of peonies and lotus flowers

Picture 72

 

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Picture 73

Vertical view of the lotus flower below chain handles

Picture 74

Lower edges are China Ru Yi motif band (table 5) and the base horizontal view of lotus flowers

 

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Picture 75

The Yuan Dynasty    1279-1368

 Jardenier:  

The upper border, “Ru Yi” pattern, the lower border “separators”

Mosque oil lamp (picture 70) , the main composition almost the same application.

 

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Picture 76

      THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM  
Leğen(basin)

h=23 cm. Ø = 43.2 cm    Date 1510

On the outside Chinese motif accompanying to rumi motifs, various pomegranate flowers. The inner surface; Rumi motifs on the center, and a band around 8 knot, the outer ring 8 + 8 of the 16 main rumi motif applied. (picture 76a)

Picture 76a

Picture 77

THE VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM  

The Yuan Dynasty  1350s

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